DES16C3cje: A low-luminosity, long-lived supernova

C.~P. Gutiérrez, M. Sullivan, L. Martinez, M.~C. Bersten, C. Inserra, M. Smith, J.~P. Anderson, Y. -C. Pan, A. Pastorello, L. Galbany, P. Nugent, C.~R. Angus, C. Barbarino, D. Carollo, T. -W. Chen, T.~M. Davis, M. Della Valle, R.~J. Foley, M. Fraser, C. FrohmaierS. González-Gaitán, M. Gromadzki, E. Kankare, R. Kokotanekova, J. Kollmeier, G.~F. Lewis, M.~R. Magee, K. Maguire, A. Möller, N. Morrell, M. Nicholl, M. Pursiainen, J. Sollerman, N.~E. Sommer, E. Swann, B.~E. Tucker, P. Wiseman, M. Aguena, S. Allam, S. Avila, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, E. Buckley-Geer, D.~L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, M. Costanzi, L.~N. da Costa, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H.~T. Diehl, P. Doel, T.~F. Eifler, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, J. Frieman, J. Garcia-Bellido, D.~W. Gerdes, D. Gruen, R.~A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.~R. Hinton, D.~L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.~J. James, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, M. Lima, M.~A.~G. Maia, M. March, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, E. Morganson, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A.~A. Plazas, M. Sako, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Soares-Santos, E. Suchyta, M.~E.~C. Swanson, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, T.~N. Varga, A.~R. Walker, R. Wilkinson, DES Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present DES16C3cje, a low-luminosity, long-lived type II supernova (SN II) at redshift 0.0618, detected by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES16C3cje is a unique SN. The spectra are characterized by extremely narrow photospheric lines corresponding to very low expansion velocities of1500 km s -1, and the light curve shows an initial peak that fades after 50 d before slowly rebrightening over a further 100 d to reach an absolute brightness of M r ∼-15.5 mag. The decline rate of the late-time light curve is then slower than that expected from the powering by radioactive decay of 56Co, but is comparable to that expected from accretion power. Comparing the bolometric light curve with hydrodynamical models, we find that DES16C3cje can be explained by either (i) a low explosion energy (0.11 foe) and relatively large 56Ni production of 0.075 M · from an ∼15 M · red supergiant progenitor typical of other SNe II, or (ii) a relatively compact ∼40 M · star, explosion energy of 1 foe, and 0.08 M · of 56Ni. Both scenarios require additional energy input to explain the late-time light curve, which is consistent with fallback accretion at a rate of ∼0.5 × 10 -8 M · s -1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-110
Number of pages16
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
CPG and MS acknowledge support from EU/FP7-ERC grant No. [615929]. LG was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 839090. TWC acknowledgments the funding provided by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. MF is supported by a Royal Society–Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. MG is supported by the Polish NCN MAESTRO grant 2014/14/A/ST9/00121. MN is supported by a Royal Astronomical Society Research Fellowship.

Funding Information:
Some of the data presented here were obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovac¸ão (Brazil). Gemini observations were obtained under programme NOAO GS-2016B-Q-9.

Funding Information:
Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundac¸ão Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovac¸ão, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey.

Funding Information:
Based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Funding Information:
Part of the funding for GROND (both hardware as well as personnel) was generously granted from the Leibniz-Prize to Prof. G. Hasinger (DFG grant HA 1850/28-1).

Funding Information:
This work has been partially supported by the Spanish grant PGC2018-095317-B-C21 within the European Funds for Regional Development (FEDER).

Funding Information:
The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MINECO under grants AYA2015-71825, ESP2015-66861, FPA2015-68048, SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2016-0597, and MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciênciae Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2).

Funding Information:
This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

Funding Information:
This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


  • supernovae: general
  • supernovae: individual: (DES16C3cje)
  • High Energy Physics - Phenomenology
  • Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena


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