The all-inorganic halide perovskite (CsPbI 3) holds promise for photovoltaic applications but suffers from a detrimental phase transformation to a non-perovskite phase d-CsPbI 3at low-temperature. Of the different perovskite polymorphs, there has been a wide range of studies on ?-CsPbI 3due to its kinetic stability at near room-temperature. However, synthesis routes to this and other all-inorganic halide perovskites are still not ideal, requiring uneconomical elimination of humidity as well as quenching from elevated temperature. Water/moisture is commonly meticulously avoided due the fact that it can accelerate the detrimental degradation of the perovskite. In our synthesis, we used an alternative approach of engineering anin situdegradation process to form a dual-functional PbI(OH) protective covering and succeeded in performing the first room-temperature synthesis of ?-CsPbI 3under ambient humidity. The vastly improved stability benefits from both lattice anchoring and physical coverage of ?-CsPbI 3by an ultra-thin PbI(OH) layer. The resultant ?-CsPbI 3is stable for more than 2 months under ambient conditions (25 °C, RH = 30-60%) and more than 12 hours at 175 °C in air without any degradation. Furthermore, we show that this novel facile method can be successfully applied to mixed halide perovskites such as CsPbI 2Br, and this has allowed the first experimental synthesis of the ?-polymorph of CsPbI 2Br. Thus, our work provides an efficient degradation-induced lattice-anchoring self-stabilization strategy and a new avenue to the economical synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite materials at room-temperature under ambient conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge the technical support from the SUSTech Core Research Facilities (SUSTech CRF). We acknowledge the help from Zenglong Guo (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology) for TEM measurements and Zehua Li (School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham) for Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy measurements. Abubakar Muhammad acknowledges the scholarship funding from the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF), Nigeria. Elizabeth Driscoll acknowledges scholarship support from the University of Birmingham.