Cystatin D (CST5): An ultra-early inflammatory biomarker of traumatic brain injury

Lisa Hill*, Valentina Di Pietro, Jon Hazeldine, David Davies, Emma Toman, Ann Logan, Antonio Belli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
210 Downloads (Pure)


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is set to become the leading cause of neurological disability across all age groups. Currently, no reliable biomarkers exist to help diagnose the severity of TBI to identify patients who are at risk of developing secondary injuries. Thus, the discovery of reliable biomarkers for the management of TBI would improve clinical interventions. Inflammatory markers are particularly suited for biomarker discovery as TBI leads to very early alterations in inflammatory proteins. Using the Proseek Multiplex Inflammation assay, we measured in patients that had suffered mild TBI (n = 10) or severe TBI (n = 10) with extra-cranial injury or extracranial injury only (EC) (n = 10), 92 inflammation-associated proteins in serum obtained: <1 hr (within 1-hour), 4-12 hr and 48-72 hr post injury. Changes were compared to healthy volunteers (HV). Our results identified CST5, AXIN1 and TRAIL as novel early biomarkers of TBI. CST5 identified patients with severe TBI from all other cohorts and importantly was able to do so within the first hour of injury. AXIN1 and TRAIL were able to discriminate between TBI and HV at <1 hr. We conclude that CST5, AXIN1 and TRAIL are worthy of further study in the context of a pre-hospital or pitch-side test to detect brain injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5002
Number of pages10
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2017


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