Current and Future Immunotherapy-Based Treatments for Oesophageal Cancers

Natalie To, Richard P T Evans, Hayden Pearce, Sivesh K Kamarajah, Paul Moss, Ewen A Griffiths

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Oesophageal cancer is a disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the prognosis of this condition has hardly improved in the past few years. Standard treatment includes a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery; however, only a proportion of patients go on to treatment intended to cure the disease due to the late presentation of this disease. New treatment options are of utmost importance, and immunotherapy is a new option that has the potential to transform the landscape of this disease. This treatment is developed to act on the changes within the immune system caused by cancer, including checkpoint inhibitors, which have recently shown great promise in the treatment of this disease and have recently been included in the adjuvant treatment of oesophageal cancer in many countries worldwide. This review will outline the mechanisms by which cancer evades the immune system in those diagnosed with oesophageal cancer and will summarize current and ongoing trials that focus on the use of our own immune system to combat disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3104
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
University of Birmingham for contributing to the publication fee.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • cancer
  • immunotherapy
  • oesophageal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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