Inflammation stands at the centre of a range of natural and pathological processes, such as ageing, wound healing, infection, arthritis, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and the inflammatory response to surgery. It is well accepted that inflammation, in the right place and at the right time, is at the center of a healthy host response to natural or man-made stresses. However, systemic or runaway inflammation is pathological and it is incumbent to understand better how the inflammatory process is curbed, either naturally or with intervention. This special issue invited submissions to expand our understanding of contemporary mechanisms or approaches to curb the inflammatory response in three broad settings: (1) the systemic inflammatory response, (2) chronic inflammation, and (3) natural pathways in inflammatory resolution. The editors selected a good balance between original research papers and review articles that addressed each area of the call.