Consensus for experimental design in electromyography (CEDE) project: high-density surface electromyography matrix

Alessio Gallina, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug, Dario Farina, Roberto Merletti, Manuela Besomi, Aleš Holobar, Roger M Enoka, François Hug, Deborah Falla, Karen Søgaard, Kevin McGill, Edward A Clancy, Richard G Carson, Jaap H van Dieën, Simon Gandevia, Madeleine Lowery, Thor Besier, Matthew C Kiernan, John C Rothwell, Kylie TuckerPaul W Hodges

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High-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) can be used to measure the spatial distribution of electrical muscle activity over the skin. As this distribution is associated with the generation and propagation of muscle fiber action potentials, HDsEMG is processed to extract information on regional muscle activation, muscle fiber characteristics and behaviour of individual motor units. This matrix, developed by the Consensus for Experimental Design in Electromyography (CEDE) project, summarizes recommendations on the use of HDsEMG in experimental studies. For each application, recommendations are included regarding electrode montage, electrode type and configuration, electrode location and orientation, data analysis, and interpretation. Cautions and reporting standards are also included. The steps of the Delphi process to reach consensus are contained in an appendix. This matrix is intended to help researchers when collecting, reporting, and interpreting HDsEMG data. It is hoped that this document will be used to generate new empirical evidence to improve how HDsEMG is used in research and in clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102656
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of electromyography and kinesiology : official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology
Early online date16 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The CEDE group wishes to acknowledge the contribution of Prof. Dario G. Liebermann, the special editor for this series, for his critical assessment of the first version of this paper which substantially helped in refining it. We acknowledge the financial and intellectual support provided by the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK) for the CEDE project.

MML is supported by the European Research Council Grant (ERC-2014- CoG-646923_DBSModel). PWH is supported by an NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship (APP1102905). MCK was supported by the NHMRC Program Grant (APP1132524), Partnership Project (APP1153439) and Practitioner Fellowship (APP1156093). AH is supported by Slovenian Research Agency (projects J2-1731 and L7-9421 and Program funding P2-0041). FH is supported by a fellowship from the Institut Universitaire de France (IUF). DF is supported by the European Research Council (ERC; 810346) and by the Royal Society (Wolfson Research Merit Award).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Consensus
  • Electromyography
  • High-density surface EMG
  • Recording

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Biophysics
  • Clinical Neurology


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