Conductivity measurement using 3D printed re-entrant cavity resonator

Ali Musa Mohammed*, Yi Wang, Talal Skaik, Sheng Li, Moataz Attallah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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A technique for measuring effective conductivity of conductor materials using 3D printed re-entrant cavity resonator is proposed. An analytical formula for the extraction of the effective conductivity has been derived in relation to energy stored in the volume of the cavity geometry. A method of resonant cavity characterisation of material based on microwave losses is utilised for the measurements. The approach offers a simplified analytical method and also supports the measurements of sample with arbitrary thickness. Samples produced from three different manufacturing processes of computer numerical control (CNC) and 3D printing, made of aluminium, copper and stainless steel were measured to demonstrate the method. The 3D printed and copper coated polymer sample is considered as reference material for the measurements. The measured results have shown that the copper coated polymer sample have similar conductivity with that CNC copper. This signifies the good finishing, low surface roughness and quality of copper coating used in 3D printed polymer device.

Original languageEnglish
Article number055017
Number of pages7
JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
Issue number5
Early online date18 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A M M wishes to acknowledge Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF) Nigeria for the PhD scholarship. The work is partially funded by UK EPSRC Grant EP/S013113/1.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • 3D printing
  • additive manufacturing
  • conductivity
  • re-entrant cavity
  • surface roughness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Mathematics


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