Concentrations of legacy and emerging flame retardants in air and soil on a transect in the UK West Midlands

Daniel S Drage, Seth Newton, Cynthia A de Wit, Stuart Harrad

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42 Citations (Scopus)
153 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Passive air samples were collected monthly for 6 months from 8 sites along a transect of Birmingham, United Kingdom between June 2012 and January 2013. Soil samples were collected once at each site. Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in ambient air were 150, 49, and 180 pg m(-3), respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs were negatively correlated with distance from the city centre, exhibiting an "urban pulse". The average ΣHBCDD air concentration was 100 pg m(-3), however concentrations were not correlated with distance from the city centre. Several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were identified in air and/or soil samples: 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DP or DDC-CO). Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in soil were 11, 3.6, and 15 ng g(-1) soil organic matter. PBDE concentrations in soil were higher at sites closest to the city centre, however correlations with distance from the city centre were not significant. BDEs-47 and -99 contributed more to ΣPBDEs in soil samples than air samples, but in both, the predominant congener was BDE-209. BATE was more abundant in air than soil but ATE was abundant in soil but not air.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-203
Number of pages9
JournalChemosphere
Volume148
Early online date22 Jan 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016

Keywords

  • PBDEs
  • HBCDD
  • HBCD
  • EFRs
  • Air
  • Soil

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