Comparing PETTLEP Imagery against Observation Imagery on Vividness and Ease of Movement Imagery

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The present study compared the effects of: a) PETTLEP imagery (e.g., imaging in the 3 environment); b) prior-observation (i.e., observing prior to imaging); and c) traditional 4 imagery (e.g., imaging sat in a quiet room) on the ease and vividness of external visual 5 imagery (EVI), internal visual imagery (IVI), and kinesthetic imagery (KI) of movements. 6 Fifty two participants (28 female, 24 male, Mage = 19.60 years, SD = 1.59) imaged the 7 movements described in the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ-2) under 8 the three conditions in a counterbalanced order. Vividness and ease of imaging ratings were 9 recorded for each movement. A repeated measure MANOVA revealed that ease and 10 vividness ratings for EVI, IVI, and KI were higher during the PETTLEP imagery condition 11 compared to the traditional imagery condition, and vividness of EVI was higher during the 12 observation imagery condition compared to traditional imagery. Findings indicate that 13 incorporating PETTLEP elements into the imagery instructions leads to easier and more vivid 14 movement EVI, IVI, and KI imagery.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Early online date13 Jun 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Jun 2016


  • Imagery ability
  • external visual imagery
  • internal visual imagery
  • kinesthetic imagery
  • observation


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