Coating of sodium percarbonate particles using water soluble materials in a fluidised bed to achieve delayed release in aqueous environment

Lei Xing, Bingyu Zhuo, Serafeim Bakalis, Jerome Castro, Zhibing Zhang

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Three coating materials, namely sodium sulphate, 1.6R and 2.35R sodium silicate, were respectively used to coat sodium percarbonate (SPC) particles in a fluidised bed coater to achieve its delayed release in aqueous environment. The size of SPC particles was measured using image analysis. The thickness and porosity of the shell materials were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and helium pycnometry respectively. The rates of SPC release from uncoated and the coated particles were measured using an iodide molybdate titration method coupled with UV-Vis spectrometry. The results indicate that sodium sulphate coating with an average thickness of 53±9 μm only reduced the release rate of SPC as no delayed release was observed. In contrast, sodium silicate coating generated a significant delayed release. 1.6R sodium silicate coating with a thickness of 109±8 μm delayed the release of SPC by approximate 60 seconds under a static condition. At the same condition, 2.35R sodium silicate coating with a thickness of 71±10 μm delayed the release by approximately 7 minutes. When the coated SPC particles immersed in water were shaken using an orbital shaker at 150 rpm, the delayed time was reduced by 50% in comparison with the static condition. The 1.6R sodium silicate shell in solid phase transformed to gel-like structure during dissolution and the hydrodynamic forces generated in the shaker accelerated its dissolution. However, there was no significant change of 2.35R sodium silicate shell when the capsules were immersed in water under the static condition, and they broke into pieces in the shaker. For both 1.6R and 2.35R sodium silicate, the further increase in shell thickness increased their shell porosity, which facilitated the water penetration and thus resulted in no significant benefit to additional delay. Moreover, the thermal stability of SPC after coating was slightly improved and the flowability did not change significantly. This study demonstrates that a significant delay in release of SPC can be achieved using 2.35R sodium silicate as a coating material.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1372730
JournalCogent Engineering
Early online date1 Sept 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • sodium percarbonate
  • controlled release
  • thermal stability
  • sodium sulphate
  • sodium silicate
  • fluidised bed coating


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