Clinical research on peri-implant diseases: consensus report of Working Group 4

M Sanz, Iain Chapple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

293 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Two systematic reviews have evaluated the quality of research and reporting of observational studies investigating the prevalence of, the incidence of and the risk factors for peri-implant diseases and of experimental clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic interventions. Materials and Methods: For the improvement of the quality of reporting for both observational and experimental studies, the STROBE and the Modified CONSORT recommendations were encouraged. Results: To improve the quality of research in peri-implant diseases, the following were recommended: the use of unequivocal case definitions; the expression of outcomes at the subject rather than the implant level; the implementation of study validation tools; the reporting of potential sources of bias; and the use of appropriate statistical methods. Conclusions: In observational studies, case definitions for peri-implantitis were agreed. For risk factor determination, the progressive use of cross-sectional and case-control studies (univariate analyses), to prospective cohorts (multilevel modelling for confounding), and ultimately to intervention studies were recommended. For preventive and interventional studies of peri-implant disease management, parallel arm RCTs of at least 6-months were encouraged. For studies of nonsurgical and surgical management of peri-implantitis, the use of a composite therapeutic end point was advocated. The development of standard control therapies was deemed essential.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-206
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2012


  • peri-implant health
  • peri-implant mucositis
  • intervention
  • prevalence
  • prevention
  • incidence
  • peri-implant diseases
  • risk factors
  • peri-implantitis


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