Clinical pharmacy services provided in public sector hospitals in Nigeria: a national survey

Arit Udoh, Mary Akpan, Umar Idris Ibrahim, Basira Kankia Lawal, Kamilu Sarki Labaran, Ekpedeme Ndem, Kosisochi Amorha, Ayodeji Matuluko, Olubukola Tikare, Unoma Ohabunwa, Eneyi Kpokiri

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OBJECTIVES: Studies show that clinical pharmacy services are effective in optimizing medicines use and patients' outcomes. This study aimed to determine the clinical pharmacy services provided in public sector hospitals in Nigeria.

METHODS: This was an online survey of 296 primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals sampled purposively across the 36 States and Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Data analysis was conducted descriptively via χ 2 test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).

KEY FINDINGS: Responses were obtained from 272 hospitals in the country with a survey completion rate of 88%. This included 55 tertiary, 72 secondary and 145 primary healthcare centres (PHCs). Pharmacists provided pharmaceutical care services in all the tertiary care hospitals, 94% of the secondary and in only 6% of the PHCs surveyed. Most of the secondary and tertiary care hospitals provided medicines information, patient education and counselling, and in-patient dispensing services [n = 97 (79%), 116 (94%), 88 (72%)], respectively. However, fewer than a third reported involvement in multidisciplinary ward rounds, medication chart review and antibiotic stewardship programmes [n = 18 (15%), 33 (27%), 22 (18%), respectively]. Furthermore, medication error reporting and pharmacovigilance services were each routinely provided in only about half of the secondary and tertiary care hospitals [n = 62 (50%)], and this was not associated with the level of care (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrate disparity in clinical pharmacy service availability across the various levels of care in Nigeria and emphasize the need to prioritize their integration within the primary care sector.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-479
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Issue number5
Early online date28 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2021.


  • Hospitals, Public
  • Humans
  • Nigeria
  • Pharmacists
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital
  • Public Sector
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


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