Citizens from 13 countries share similar preferences for COVID-19 vaccine allocation priorities

Raymond Duch, Laurence S. J. Roope, Mara Violato, Matias Fuentes Becerra, Thomas S. Robinson, Jean-francois Bonnefon, Jorge Friedman, Peter John Loewen, Pavan Mamidi, Alessia Melegaro, Mariana Blanco, Juan Vargas, Julia Seither, Paolo Candio, Ana Gibertoni Cruz, Xinyang Hua, Adrian Barnett, Philip M. Clarke

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How does the public want a COVID-19 vaccine to be allocated? We conducted a conjoint experiment asking 15,536 adults in 13 countries to evaluate 248,576 profiles of potential vaccine recipients who varied randomly on five attributes. Our sample includes diverse countries from all continents. The results suggest that in addition to giving priority to health workers and to those at high risk, the public favors giving priority to a broad range of key workers and to those with lower income. These preferences are similar across respondents of different education levels, incomes, and political ideologies, as well as across most surveyed countries. The public favored COVID-19 vaccines being allocated solely via government programs but were highly polarized in some developed countries on whether taking a vaccine should be mandatory. There is a consensus among the public on many aspects of COVID-19 vaccination, which needs to be taken into account when developing and communicating rollout strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2026382118
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number38
Early online date15 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 21 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the COVID-19 Oxford Vaccine Trial. R.D. acknowledges the support provided by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cient?fico y Tecnol?gico 2020 Grant 1201397. M.V. received funding from the NIHR Applied Research Collaboration Oxford and Thames Valley at Oxford Health National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust. J.-F.B. acknowledges support from Investissements d?Avenir Grant ANR-17-EURE-0010. J.F. received funding from University of Santiago Project Dicyt USA1899. A.M. acknowledges support from Italian Ministry of Education Progetti di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale Grant 20177BRJXS and the European Research Council Consolidator Grant 101003183. We acknowledge the support of the Office of the Dean of the Faculty of Arts & Science at the University of Toronto. We are grateful to Professor Dominik Hangartner for his generous support and helpful suggestions. We also thank Teresa Day, Barbara Kitchener, and Melanie Sawers for their administrative support throughout the project. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


  • COVID-19
  • Public health
  • Public opinion
  • Vaccinations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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