Characterisation of fasted state gastric and intestinal fluids collected from children

Gopal Pawar, Eleni Papadatou- Soulou, Julie Mason, Rafeeq Muhammed, Alison Watson, Catherine Cotter, Mohamed Abdallah, Stuart Harrad, Claire Mackie, Tina Arien, Sabine Inghelbrecht, Hannah Batchelor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Fundamental knowledge about the composition of intestinal fluids in paediatric populations is currently unavailable. This study aimed to characterise gastric and intestinal fluid from paediatric populations. Gastric and intestinal fluid samples were obtained during routine clinical endoscopy from paediatric patients at a large teaching hospital. These fluids were characterised to measure the pH; buffer capacity; osmolality; bile acid concentration and composition. A total of 55 children were recruited to the study aged from 11 months to 15 years of age where 53 gastric fluid samples and 40 intestinal fluid samples were obtained. pH values recorded ranged from pH 0.57 to 11.05 (median: 2.50) in gastric fluids and from 0.89 to 8.97 (median: 3.27) in intestinal fluids. The buffer capacity did not change significantly between gastric and intestinal fluids with median values of 12 mM/L/ΔpH for both fluids. Gastric fluid osmolality values ranged from 1 to 615 mOsm/kg, while intestinal fluid values ranged from 35 to 631 mOsm/kg. Gastric fluid bile acid concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 2.3 mM with a median value of 0.017 mM whilst intestinal fluid bile acid concentrations ranged from 0.0008 to 3.3 mM with a median value of 0.178 mM. Glycocholate; taurocholic acid; glycochenodeoxycholate and taurochenodeoxycholate were the most commonly identified bile acids within paediatric intestinal fluids. All compositional components were associated with large inter-individual variability. Further work is required to develop simulated paediatric media and to explore the impact of these media on drug solubility and dissolution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-165
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Early online date28 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Janssen Research and Development, Belgium.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020


  • Bile acid
  • Buffer capacity
  • Gastrointestinal fluid
  • Osmolality
  • Paediatric
  • pH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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