Adenovirus 2 and 12 early region 1A (Ad2 and Ad12 E1A) proteins were cleaved during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of Ad-transformed rat and human cells. Cleavage was inhibited in the presence of caspase inhibitors such as Z-VAD-FMK. In Ad12 transformants both 13S and 12S E1A proteins were cleaved at a similar rate. In Ad2 transformants the E1A 13S component was appreciably less stable than the 12S component. In in vitro studies Ad2 and Ad12 EIIA 13S and Ad2 12S proteins were rapidly cleaved by caspase 3 whereas Ad12 12S E1A and Ad12 13S E1A were rapidly degraded by caspase 7. Cleavage sites in Ad12 13S proteins for caspase 3 have been determined, Initial cleavage occurred at D24 and D150; this was followed by cleavage at D204 and D242. Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of Ad12 13S E1A destroyed its ability to bind to COP and TEP but interaction between C terminal E1A polypeptides and CtBP was observed. During viral infection Ad5 and Ad12 E1A 12S proteins were markedly more stable than 13S proteins but no difference was observed in Ad E1A levels in the absence or presence of the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK or Z-D(OMe)-E(OMe)-V-D(OMe)-CH2F. Limited caspase 3 and 10 activation occurred during infection with the E1B 19K(-) virus Ad2 pm1722 but little or no activation of caspase 3 was observed during wt virus infection. Examination of protein cleavage during viral infection of A549 cells showed proteolysis of lamin B and PARP in response to Ad5 wt and Ad2 pm1722. Protein degradation in response to both viruses was partially inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK Following infection of human skin fibroblasts lamin B was degraded, although only limited changes in PARP levels were observed. We have concluded that Ad E1A is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis but not during viral infection. However, some of the processes commonly associated with apoptosis occur during viral infection, particularly with El B 19K(-) mutants, although apoptosis per se is not evident. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
- TNF alpha
- adenovirus E1A