CASA: tracking the past and plotting the future

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The human semen sample carries a wealth of information of varying degrees of accessibility ranging from the traditional visual measures of count and motility to those that need a more computational approach, such as tracking the flagellar waveform. Although computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) options are becoming more widespread, the gold standard for clinical semen analysis requires trained laboratory staff. In this review we characterise the key attitudes towards the use of CASA and set out areas in which CASA should, and should not, be used and improved. We provide an overview of the current CASA landscape, discussing clinical uses as well as potential areas for the clinical translation of existing research technologies. Finally, we discuss where we see potential for the future of CASA, and how the integration of mathematical modelling and new technologies, such as automated flagellar tracking, may open new doors in clinical semen analysis
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)867-874
Number of pages8
JournalReproduction Fertility and Development
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2018


  • clinical diagnostics
  • flagellar analysis
  • glyphs
  • image analysis
  • machine learning
  • mathematical modelling
  • sperm
  • viscosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Applied Mathematics


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