Unsupervised clustering methods of transthoracic echocardiography variables have not been used to characterise circulatory failure mechanisms in patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis. We conducted a retrospective, single-centre cohort study in ICU patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis whose lungs were mechanically ventilated and who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between March 2020 and May 2021. We performed latent class analysis of echocardiographic and haemodynamic variables. We characterised the identified subphenotypes by comparing their clinical parameters, treatment responses and 90-day mortality rates. We included 305 patients with a median (IQR [range]) age 59 (49-66 [16-83]) y. Of these, 219 (72%) were male, 199 (65%) had moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome and 113 (37%) did not survive more than 90 days. Latent class analysis identified three cardiovascular subphenotypes: class 1 (52%; normal right ventricular function); class 2 (31%; right ventricular dilation with mostly preserved systolic function); and class 3 (17%; right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment). The three subphenotypes differed in their clinical characteristics and response to prone ventilation and outcomes, with 90-day mortality rates of 22%, 42% and 73%, respectively (p < 0.001). We conclude that the identified subphenotypes aligned with right ventricular pathophysiology rather than the accepted definitions of right ventricular dysfunction, and these identified classifications were associated with clinical outcomes.
Bibliographical note© 2022 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists.
- acute respiratory distress syndrome
- right ventricular dysfunction
- right ventricular failure
- transthoracic echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine