Cardioplegia practice in paediatric cardiac surgery: a UK & Ireland survey

Nigel Drury, Angela Horsburgh, Rehana Bi, Robert Willetts, Timothy Jones

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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Introduction: Many techniques are available for cardioplegic arrest in children but there is a lack of late phase clinical trials to guide practice. We surveyed paediatric cardiac surgeons and perfusionists to establish current practice and willingness to change within a clinical trial. Methods: An online survey was sent to all Consultant paediatric cardiac surgeons and Chief perfusionists in paediatric centres in UK and Ireland. Information was sought on cardioplegia type, composition, temperature, topical cooling, dosing for induction and maintenance, interval between doses, whether practice changed with patient age or complexity, and whether respondents would be willing and able to use different cardioplegia solutions within a randomised trial. Results: Responses were obtained from 32 (78.0%) surgeons and 12 (100%) perfusionists. 27 (84.4%) surgeons use blood cardioplegia in infants, with St. Thomas’ Harefield preparation the most popular (19, 59.4%), used routinely in 8 (66.7%) centres. 22 (68.8%) administer at 4-6°C, 18 (56.3%) use topical cooling, 18 (56.3%) give 30ml/kg induction and 15ml/kg maintenance, with 23 (71.9%) redosing every 20-25 minutes. 30 (93.8%) surgeons were open to randomising patients in a trial with del Nido (29, 90.6%) the most popular. Conclusions: This survey demonstrates heterogeneity in cardioplegia practice. Whilst most surgeons use blood cardioplegia, there is variation in type, temperature, topical cooling, dosing and intervals. Combined with a lack of evidence from late phase trials, our findings support the presence of clinical equipoise. Surgeons are willing to change practice suggesting that a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of cardioplegia in children is feasible.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date10 Aug 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Aug 2018


  • Cardioplegia
  • Myocardial protection
  • Paediatric cardiac surgery


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