Thyroid plays an important role in the endocrine system of the human body. Its characterization by diffuse optics can open new path ways in the non-invasive diagnosis of thyroid pathologies. Yet, the absorption spectra of tyrosine and thyroglobulin – key tissue constituents specific to the thyroid organ – in the visible to near infrared range are not fully available. Here, we present the optical characterization of tyrosine (powder), thyroglobulin (granular form) and iodine (aqueous solution) using a time domain broadband diffuse optical spectrometer in the 550-1350 nm range. Various systematic errors caused by physics of photo migration and sample inherent properties were effectively suppressed by means of advanced time domain diffuse optical methods. A brief comparison with various other known tissue constituents is presented, which reveals key
spectral regions for the quantification of the thyroid absorbers in an in vivo scenario.