Beta-lactams and Beta-lactamase-inhibitors in current- or potential-clinical practice: A comprehensive update

M Shahid, E Sobia, A Singh, A Malik, HM Khan, D Jonas, Peter Hawkey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

94 Citations (Scopus)


The use of successive generations of beta-lactams has selected successive generations of beta-lactamases including CTX-M ESBLs, AmpC beta-lactamases, and KPC carbapenamases in Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, this cephalosporin resistance, along with rising resistance to fluoroquinolones, is now driving the use of carbapenems and unfortunately the carbapenem resistance has emerged markedly, especially in Acinetobocter spp. due to OXA- and metallo-carbapenemases. The industry responded to the challenge of rising resistance and recently developed some novel beta-lactams such as ceftobiprole, ceftaroline etc. and many beta-lactam compounds, including beta-lactamase-inhibitors, such as BMS-247243, S-3578, RWJ-54428, CS-023, SMP-601, NXL 104, BAL 30376, LK 157, and so on are under trials. This review provides the comprehensive accounts of the developments in penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and beta-lactamase-inhibitors, and the insight about medicinal chemistry, mechanism(s) of action and resistance, potential strategies to overcome resistance due to beta-lactamases, and also the recent advancements in the development of newer P-lactam compounds; some of which are still under trials and yet to be classified. This review will fill the gap since previously published reviews and will serve as a comprehensive update on the current topic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-108
Number of pages28
JournalCritical Reviews in Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2009


  • penicillins
  • carbapenems
  • cephalosporins
  • resistance
  • beta-lactamase-inhibitors
  • Newer-beta-lactams


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