Bedside, benchtop, and bioengineering: Physicochemical imaging techniques in biomineralization

Neil M. Eisenstein, Sophie C. Cox, Richard Williams, Sarah A. Stapley, Liam M. Grover*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
298 Downloads (Pure)


The need to quantify physicochemical properties of mineralization spans many fields. Clinicians, mineralization researchers, and bone tissue bioengineers need to be able to measure the distribution, quantity, and the mechanical and chemical properties of mineralization within a wide variety of substrates from injured muscle to electrospun polymer scaffolds and everything in between. The techniques available to measure these properties are highly diverse in terms of their complexity and utility. Therefore it is of the utmost importance that those who intend to use them have a clear understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each technique and its appropriateness to their specific application. This review provides all of this information for each technique and uses heterotopic ossification and engineered bone substitutes as examples to illustrate how these techniques have been applied. In addition, we provide novel data using advanced techniques to analyze human samples of combat related heterotopic ossification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-528
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number5
Early online date20 Jan 2016
Publication statusPublished - 9 Mar 2016


  • Biomaterials
  • Bones
  • Heterotopic ossification
  • Imaging
  • Mineralization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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