Autism spectrum disorder in females with fragile X syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence

M Marlborough, A Welham, C Jones, S Reckless, J Moss

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Whilst up to 60% of males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the prevalence and nature of ASD in females with FXS remains unclear.

METHOD: A systematic literature search identified papers reporting ASD prevalence and/or symptomatology in females with FXS.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis suggested that rates of ASD for females with FXS are reliably higher than for females in the general population (a random effects model estimated weighted average prevalence at 14%, 95% CI 13-18%). Whilst papers highlighted a number of social and repetitive difficulties for females with FXS, characteristic profiles of impairment are not clear. Possible associations between ASD traits and IQ, and between ASD and levels of fragile X mental retardation protein, are suggested, but data are equivocal.

Original languageEnglish
Article number28
JournalJournal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021. The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications
  • Female
  • Fragile X Syndrome/complications
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence

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