Cyanine dyes are known to form large-scale aggregates of various morphologies via spontaneous self-assembly in aqueous solution, akin to chromonic liquid crystals. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on four cyanine dyes: pseudoisocyanine chloride (PIC), pinacyanol chloride (PCYN), 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine chloride (TTBC) and 1,1′-disulfopropyl-3,3′-diethyl-5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine sodium salt (BIC). Simulations employed an optimised general AMBER force field and demonstrate the organisation of the dyes into stacked structures at dilute concentrations. The thermodynamics of self-assembly was studied by calculating potentials of mean force for n-mers (n = 2, 3 or 4), from which the free energies of association are determined. We report binding free energies in the range of 8 to 15kBT for dimerisation, concordant with typical values for ionic chromonics (7 to 14kBT), and examine the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the aggregation process. The self-assembly of these dyes yields two distinct classes of structures. We observe the formation of H-aggregate stacks for PCYN, with further complexity in these assemblies for PIC; where the aggregates contain shift and Y junction defects. TTBC and BIC associate into a J-aggregate sheet structure of unimolecular thickness, and is composed of a brickwork arrangement between molecules. These sheet structures are characteristic of the smectic chromonic mesophase, and such assemblies provide a route to the emergence of nanoscale tubular architectures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry