Assessment of wind speeds based on damage observations from the Angus (Ontario) Tornado of 17 June 2014

Gregory Kopp, E. Hong, E. Gavanski, D. Stedman, D.M.L. Sills

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A tornado occurred in Angus, Ontario, during the late afternoon hours of 17 June 2014. The authors conducted a damage investigation on the morning following the storm. The damage indicators support the classification of the tornado as an EF-2 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale, including the observation of several complete roof failures of recently-constructed, wood-frame houses. Most of the damage to residential homes was contained along two streets, with the tornado appearing to have gone down the backyards between the two. In total, 101 houses were observed to have sustained some level of damage. The evidence suggests that the quality of construction likely affected the performance of failed roofs. A detailed fragility analysis was conducted to assess wind speeds associated with these failures of the roof-to-wall connections. An overturned and lofted box truck provided the opportunity to correlate this failure with adjacent, repetitive failures of roof sheathing, shingles, and garage doors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-47
JournalCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
Issue number1
Early online date22 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • tornadoes
  • EF-Scale
  • wood-frame houses
  • low-rise buildings
  • wind loads


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