Architectural layout design for railway station platforms to mitigate passenger hazard risk due to terrorist explosions

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The first priority in operating transportation and transit systems is public safety. Generally, operators are expected highly to assure the reliable and safe day-to-day journeys of public transports. However, based on recent factual evidences, extreme physical and cyber threats are no longer uncommon and these unpreventable measures are even more dangerous to the public’s daily lives. Such clear examples are the terrorist attacks in Saint Petersburg in 2017, in London in 2017, in Stockholm in 2017, in Brussels in 2016, in Nice in 2016, and so many more. These examples have one thing in common. The transportation and transit system hubs are the clear target: either on rail, bus, car or truck, etc. This research establishes a novel and innovative development and optimization of architectural layout design on the railway platform in order to improve safety, manage risks, and mitigate uncertainties where perspectives from the humanities and the operations are fully considered. Computational multi-physics simulations have been used to simulate blast effects from terrorist attacks at a railway platform. Birmingham Grand Central railway station has been selected for case study modelling using LS-Dyna. A platform layout design as structural wave barriers has been used to illustrate the hazard risk mitigation for train passengers due to explosive blast pressures. The reflected air blast from a simulated terrorist bomb has been calculated using LS-Dyna CFD in comparison with the US Army guideline. The new insight will guide a new platform layout design to minimize damage and hazard risks to rail passengers. This research aligns with United Nation’s Sustainable Development by creating novel engineering solutions enabling a safer built environment.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XIII)
PublisherUnited States Association for Computational Mechanics
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics: WCCM2018 - New York, New York, United States
Duration: 23 Jul 201827 Jul 2018


Conference13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNew York
Internet address


  • Passenger safety
  • explosive blast
  • physical and cyber threats
  • hazard risk
  • railway systems
  • platform layout design
  • layout optimization


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