Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV

SJ Little, S Holte, J-P Routy, ES Daar, M Markowitz, AC Collier, RA Koup, JW Mellors, E Connick, B Conway, Mark Kilby, L Wang, JM Whitcomb, NS Hellman, DD Richman

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    BACKGROUND: Among persons in North America who are newly infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the prevalence of transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs has been estimated at 1 to 11 percent. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs before treatment and drug-resistance mutations in HIV in plasma samples from 377 subjects with primary HIV infection who had not yet received treatment and who were identified between May 1995 and June 2000 in 10 North American cities. Responses to treatment could be evaluated in 202 subjects. RESULTS: Over the five-year period, the frequency of transmitted drug resistance increased significantly. The frequency of high-level resistance to one or more drugs (indicated by a value of more than 10 for the ratio of the 50 percent inhibitory concentration [IC50] for the subject's virus to the IC50 for a drug-sensitive reference virus) increased from 3.4 percent during the period from 1995 to 1998 to 12.4 percent during the period from 1999 to 2000 (P=0.002), and the frequency of multidrug resistance increased from 1.1 percent to 6.2 percent (P=0.01). The frequency of resistance mutations detected by sequence analysis increased from 8.0 percent to 22.7 percent (P
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)385-394
    Number of pages10
    JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2002


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