Anthropometric accuracy of three-dimensional average faces compared to conventional facial measurements

Zhiyi Shan, Richard Tai-chiu Hsung, Congyi Zhang, Juanjuan Ji, Wing Shan Choi, Wenping Wang, Yanqi Yang, Min Gu, Balvinder S. Khambay

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This study aimed to evaluate and compare the accuracy of average faces constructed by different methods. Original three-dimensional facial images of 26 adults in Chinese ethnicity were imported into Di3DView and MorphAnalyser for image processing. Six average faces (Ave_D15, Ave_D24, Ave_MG15, Ave_MG24, Ave_MO15, Ave_MO24) were constructed using “surface-based registration” method with different number of landmarks and template meshes. Topographic analysis was performed, and the accuracy of six average faces was assessed by linear and angular parameters in correspondence with arithmetic means calculated from individual original images. Among the six average faces constructed by the two systems, Ave_MG15 had the highest accuracy in comparison with the conventional method, while Ave_D15 had the least accuracy. Other average faces were comparable regarding the number of discrepant parameters with clinical significance. However, marginal and non-registered areas were the most inaccurate regions using Di3DView. For MorphAnalyser, the type of template mesh had an effect on the accuracy of the final 3D average face, but additional landmarks did not improve the accuracy. This study highlights the importance of validating software packages and determining the degree of accuracy, as well as the variables which may affect the result.
Original languageEnglish
Article number12254
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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