Karyotypic analysis of wheat lines with different genotypes for the homoeologous-pairing loci Ph1 and Ph2 was carried out by means of a genomic in situ hybridization method that allowed unequivocal identification of the A, B and D genomes. Chromosomal rearrangements mainly affecting the A and D genomes were found in all plants of allohexaploid wheat (AABBDD) lacking Ph1 activity. The frequency of intergenomic exchanges per plant in ph1b mutant and nulli-5B lines was 4.31 and 3.40, respectively. In addition, an unbalanced genomic constitution was found in a few plants, some even showing a euploid chromosomal number. By contrast, rearranged karyotypes were detected neither in the ph1 mutant line (ph1c) of allotetraploid wheat (AABB) nor in the allohexaploid wheat lines lacking Ph2 activity, namely ph2b mutant and nulli-3D lines. These results were compared with the chromosomal pairing behaviour displayed by mutant lines ph1c, ph1b and ph2b at first meiotic metaphase. Despite the finding of standard, nonrearranged karyotypes in the phlc tetraploid mutant, the frequency of A-B homoeologous metaphase I association was similar to that observed in the ph1b hexaploid mutant. The results presented clearly demonstrate that inactivity of the Ph1 locus induces karyotypic instability in wheat. Intergenomic exchanges have probably been accumulating since the original ph1 mutant and aneuploid lines were obtained, which should be taken into account when it is planned to use these lines for basic research on Ph1 function or in applied wheat breeding programmes.
- Chromosome Pairing
- Nucleic Acid Hybridization