During first meiotic prophase, homologous chromosomes are normally kept together by both crossovers and synaptonemal complexes (SC). In most eukaryotes, the SC disassembles at diplotene, leaving chroniosomes joined by chiasmata. The correct co-orientation of bivalents at metaphase I and the reductional segregation at anaphase I are facilitated by chiasmata and sister-chromatid cohesion. In the absence of meiotic reciprocal recombination, homologs are expected to segregate randomly at anaphase I. Here, we have analyzed the segregation of homologous chromosomes at anaphase I in four meiotic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, spo11-1-3, dsy1, mpa1, and asy1, which show a high frequency of univalents at diplotene. The segregation pattern of chromosomes 2, 4, and 5 was different in each mutant. Homologous univalents segregated randomly in spol1-1-3, whereas they did not in dsy1 and mpa1. An intermediate situation was observed in asy1. Also, we have found a parallelism between this behavior and the Synaptic pattern displayed by each mutant. Thus, whereas spol1-1-3 and asy1 showed low amounts of SC stretches, dsy1 and mpa1 showed full synapsis. These findings Suggest that in Arabidopsis there is a system, depending on the SC formation, that would facilitate regular disjunction of homologous univalents to opposite poles at anaphase I.