Alternative solutions to a language design problem: the role of adjectives and gender marking in efficient communication

Melody Dye, Petar Milin, Richard Futrell, Michael Ramscar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
137 Downloads (Pure)


A central goal of typological research is to characterize linguistic features in terms of both their functional role and their fit to social and cognitive systems. One long-standing puzzle concerns why certain languages employ grammatical gender. In an information theoretic analysis of German noun classification, Dye, Milin, Futrell, and Ramscar (2017) enumerated a number of important processing advantages gender confers. Yet this raises a further puzzle: If gender systems are so beneficial to processing, what does this mean for languages that make do without them? Here, we compare the communicative function of gender marking in German (a deterministic system) to that of prenominal adjectives in English (a probabilistic one), finding that despite their differences, both systems act to efficiently smooth information over discourse, making nouns more equally predictable in context. We examine why evolutionary pressures may favor one system over another and discuss the implications for compositional accounts of meaning and Gricean principles of communication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-224
Number of pages16
JournalTopics in Cognitive Science
Issue number1
Early online date8 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.


  • Prenominal adjectives
  • Grammatical gender
  • Language comprehension
  • Language evolution
  • Information theory
  • Typology
  • Word order
  • Formal semantics


Dive into the research topics of 'Alternative solutions to a language design problem: the role of adjectives and gender marking in efficient communication'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this