Both increased aldose reductase (AR) activity and oxidative/nitrosative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, but the relation between the two factors remains a subject of debate. This study evaluated the effects of AR inhibition on nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation in diabetic rat kidney and high-glucose-exposed human mesangial cells. In animal experiments, control (C) and streptozotocin-diabetic (D) rats were treated with/without the AR inhibitor fidarestat (F, 16 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 6 weeks starting from induction of diabetes. Glucose, sorbitol, and fructose concentrations were significantly increased in the renal cortex of D vs C (p <0.01 for all three comparisons), and sorbitol pathway intermediate, but not glucose, accumulation, was completely prevented in D + F. F at least partially prevented diabetes-induced increase in kidney weight as well as nitrotyrosine (NT, a marker of peroxynitrite-induced injury and nitrosative stress), and poly(ADP-ribose) (a marker of PARP activation) accumulation, assessed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, in glomerular and tubular compartments of the renal cortex. In vitro studies revealed the presence of both AR and PARP-1 in human mesangial cells, and none of these two variables were affected by high glucose or F treatment. Nitrosylated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins (Western blot analysis) accumulated in cells cultured in 30 mM D-glucose (vs 5.55 mM glucose, p <0.01), but not in cells cultured in 30 mM L-glucose or 30 mM D-glucose plus 10 microM F. AR inhibition counteracts nitrosative stress and PARP activation in the diabetic renal cortex and high-glucose-exposed human mesangial cells. These findings reveal new beneficial properties of the AR inhibitor F and provide the rationale for detailed studies of F on diabetic nephropathy.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Apr 2006|