Adhesion stength of settled spores of the green alga Enteromorpha

John Finlay, Maureen Callow, MP Schultz, GW Swain, James Callow

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122 Citations (Scopus)


Strengths of attachment of spores of the green fouling alga Enteromorpha to glass have been measured using a modified water jet apparatus. Surface pressures of similar to 250 kPa were required to quantitatively remove attached spores after 4 h contact with a surface. The development of adhesive and cohesive strength is highly time-dependent; after 8 h in contact with a surface spores did not detach, even at pressures in excess of 250 kPa. Spores settled in groups are more resistant to detachment than single spores, which suggests that the adaptive value of gregarious settlement behaviour may lie in the greater resistance of groups to detachment forces in a naturally turbulent environment. The interfacial forces exerted as water impinges on the surface and the derivation of adhesion strength values in terms of wall shear stress are discussed and compared with those obtained by other methods. A surface pressure of 250 kPa approximates to 325 Pa wall shear stress. Calculation using the power-law formula predicts that detachment forces of this magnitude are unlikely to be realized at operating speeds for most vessels and that most Enteromorpha spores would not detach from untreated hulls.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-256
Number of pages6
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002


  • green algae
  • shear stress
  • biofolding
  • gregarious settlement
  • spore
  • adhesion
  • Enteromorpha


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