Here, we show that the cellular DNA replication protein and ATR substrate SMARCAL1 is recruited to viral replication centers early during adenovirus infection and is then targeted in an E1B-55K/E4orf6- and cullin RING ligase-dependent manner for proteasomal degradation. In this regard, we have determined that SMARCAL1 is phosphorylated at S123, S129, and S173 early during infection in an ATR- and CDK-dependent manner, and that pharmacological inhibition of ATR and CDK activities attenuates SMARCAL1 degradation. SMARCAL1 recruitment to viral replication centers was shown to be largely dependent upon SMARCAL1 association with the RPA complex, while Ad-induced SMARCAL1 phosphorylation also contributed to SMARCAL1 recruitment to viral replication centers, albeit to a limited extent. SMARCAL1 was found associated with E1B-55K in adenovirus E1-transformed cells. Consistent with its ability to target SMARCAL1, we determined that E1B-55K modulates cellular DNA replication. As such, E1B-55K expression initially enhances cellular DNA replication fork speed but ultimately leads to increased replication fork stalling and the attenuation of cellular DNA replication. Therefore, we propose that adenovirus targets SMARCAL1 for degradation during infection to inhibit cellular DNA replication and promote viral replication.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
- DNA damage response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science