Address Position Variability in Golfers of Differing Skill Level

Ben Langdown, Matthew Bridge, Francois-Xavier Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to determine whether differences in variability at address exist
between golfers of low and high handicaps. A consistent shot type was employed by 20 golfers from 2 skill groups over 10–15 shots with a midiron. Kinematics analysis revealed only one significant difference between skill levels: the alignment relationship between the stance and shoulders, with the high skill golfers demonstrating reduced variability. Whole group variability was significantly reduced between the distance of the ball and the midpoint of the stance, pelvis and shoulders. Alignment variability also significantly decreased toward distal segments of the kinematic sequence where variable error decreased between the alignment of stance relative to shoulders and pelvis relative to shoulders with no effect of skill level. Results suggest the more distal segments of the kinematic sequence present a greater need for reduced detrimental variability. Coaches should ensure that golfers understand the importance of shoulder alignment in relation to the stance and how on course slopes and lies can influence the positions presented at address for distal segments of the golf swing kinematic sequence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
JournalInternational Journal of Golf Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


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