A study of the deformation derivatives for a Ti-6Al-4V inertia friction weld

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The velocity–versus-time rundown curves from two experimental Ti-6Al-4V inertia friction welds were analysed and differentiated several times, to produce rotational acceleration, jerk, jounce (or snap), crackle and pop versus-times curves for each weld. Titanium alloys and their mechanical properties are known to be highly sensitive to strain rate as the material is deformed, though nothing has ever been considered in terms of the higher-order time-derivatives of position. These curves have been studied and analysed further, for a more complete understanding of the derivative trends. Rotational acceleration and jerk traces both display behavior patterns across the two welds as the part rotates under action from the flywheel. The rotational snap also displays a pattern in this derivative during the final approximately 0.5 s of welding, as the energy dissipates. Evidence of a distinct oscillatory pattern in the rotational crackle and pop terms was noted for one weld when differentiating over a larger time-base, though could not be replicated in the 2nd weld. The higher derivative curves allow distinction of different process regimes, indicating that inertial energy mostly influences the time-base of dynamically steady-state phase. Qualitative differences between initial energies are evident in higher derivatives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-121
Number of pages8
JournalAdvances in Aerospace Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2021


  • Rotation
  • Acceleration
  • Jerk
  • Snap
  • Crackle
  • Pop


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