A review on the advancements in the development of vaccines to combat coronavirus disease 2019

Helen Onyeaka, Zainab T. Al-Sharify, Maryam Yousif Ghadhban, Shahad Z. Al-Najjar

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the deadly disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a global pandemic that has severely affected lives and economies around the globe. The spread of this virus will be very difficult to contain if no vaccine is ready for implementation. This is because of the high human-to-human transmission rate of this virus and the fact that the virus is in the community spread stage. As of 31st August 2020, 25.3 million individuals have been affected by this deadly virus resulting in about 850,673 deaths. To combat the spread of COVID-19, more than 100 applicant immunizations are being developed around the world. Among them, eight have begun or will be soon beginning preliminary clinical trials. This paper provides a review of the current developments of potential COVID-19 vaccines around the world. It specifically discusses the recombinant vaccine produced by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca (Cambridge, UK), the use of novel self-amplifying RNA technique to create a vaccine and the progress made by UNAID (US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) and World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, this review demonstrates the pharmaceutical prophylaxis and treatment protocols for COVID-19 by analysing the documentation set up by the WHO for up to date data with respect to the novel coronavirus of 2019–2020.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-12
Number of pages7
JournalClinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2021


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccines
  • ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccine
  • mRNA
  • Novavax
  • WHO
  • MeSH


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