A review of emerging industry 4.0 technologies in remanufacturing

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This paper reviews the literature on the emerging digital technologies of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) focussed on the applicability of the Internet of Things (IoT), Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in remanufacturing. Inspired by the frameworks developed to support exploration and realisation of I4.0 technologies for disassembly, the paper discusses the same emerging technologies in the wider context of remanufacturing. Trends and gaps have been identified from a value-creation perspective that encompasses the product to be remanufactured, the remanufacturing equipment and processes adopted and related organisation issues. Findings suggest there is a need to explore the connection of cyber-physical systems to the IoT to support smart remanufacturing, whilst aligning with evolving information and communication infrastructures and circular economy business models. The review highlights twenty-nine research topics that require attention to support this field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number117805
Number of pages37
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date27 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2019


  • Industry 4.0
  • Virtual Reality
  • Augmented Reality
  • Internet of Things
  • Cyber-Physical Systems
  • Smart Remanufacturing


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