A novel performance evaluation methodology for single-target trackers

Matej Kristan, Jiri Matas, Ales Leonardis, Tomas Vojir, Roman Pflugfelder, Gustavo Fernandez, Georg Nebehay, Fatih Porikli, Luka Cehovin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

276 Citations (Scopus)
323 Downloads (Pure)


This paper addresses the problem of single-target tracker performance evaluation.We consider the performance measures, the dataset and the evaluation system to be the most important components of tracker evaluation and propose requirements for each of them. The requirements are the basis of a new evaluation methodology that aims at a simple and easily interpretable tracker comparison. The ranking-based methodology addresses tracker equivalence in terms of statistical significance and practical differences. A fully-annotated dataset with per-frame annotations with several visual attributes is introduced. The diversity of its visual properties is maximized in a novel way by clustering a large number of videos according to their visual attributes. This makes it the most sophistically constructed and annotated dataset to date. A multi-platform evaluation system allowing easy integration of third-party trackers is presented as well. The proposed evaluation methodology was tested on the VOT2014 challenge on the new dataset and 38 trackers, making it the largest benchmark to date. Most of the tested trackers are indeed state-of-the-art since they outperform the standard baselines, resulting in a highly-challenging benchmark. An exhaustive analysis of the dataset from the perspective of tracking difficulty is carried out. To facilitate tracker comparison a new performance visualization technique is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2137-2155
JournalIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Issue number11
Early online date12 Jan 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • Performance analysis
  • single-target tracking
  • model-free tracking
  • tracker
  • evaluation methodology
  • tracker evaluation datasets
  • tracker evaluation system


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