A Method to Qualify and Quantify the Crystalline State of Cocoa Butter in Industrial Chocolate

Benjamin Le Reverend, Peter Fryer, P Coles, Serafim Bakalis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)


A range of methods, mainly X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), have been used to characterise the polymorphism of fats in food products. As sugars present in chocolate have a significant XRD pattern, partially overlapping with the signal of cocoa butter, XRD cannot be applied directly to chocolate. In this paper, the XRD signal of a molten sample, similar to the one for pure sucrose, was subtracted from the signal of a solid sample of chocolate to remove the impact of the crystallised sugar. The XRD patterns obtained were compared with the pattern of cocoa butter cooled under the same conditions. Strong peaks were observed at similar inter lamellar d spacings showing that the polymorphic state of cocoa butter in processed chocolate could be obtained using this method. Numerical integration of the peaks also allowed quantification of the degree of crystallinity present in the system during a typical process. The accuracy of the method developed was found to be dependent on the (cocoa butter)/(sugar) ratio in the chocolate used.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-246
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Oil Chemists' Society. Journal
Issue number87
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009


  • Functional properties
  • Polymorphism
  • Fat crystallisation
  • Structural properties


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