A method to detect retained gas during AC electrograining using in-situ small angle X-ray scattering

Joshua Hammons, Trevor Rayment, I Vandendael, O Blajiev, A Hubin, Alison Davenport, M Raes, H Terryn

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7 Citations (Scopus)


AC electrochemical processes have found applications in controlled surface roughening of aluminium (AC electrograining), fine-tip sharpening for field ion microscopy (AC machining) and thin film anodising (AC anodising). The formation of a surface layer and copious amounts of hydrogen gas are inherent in these AC processes. The presence of a resistance is observed in these processes but it is the source of the resistance that is important to the understanding of ionic transport through the surface film. The AC electrograining process is chosen here, as the annual worldwide production of aluminium plate for high quality lithographic printing and for energy storage super-capacitors is in excess of 800 km(2). In this study, a method to detect gas in the surface layer (smut) in-situ with Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is proposed. The total scattering from the in-situ SAXS is used with knowledge of the total volume of smut to explain how a gas fraction can be determined by comparing two samples. Results suggest that a gas fraction can be retained in smut during AC electrograining, the degree to which varies with smut properties. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)717-719
Number of pages3
JournalElectrochemistry Communications
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2010


  • Pitting
  • Gel
  • Electrograining
  • Gas retention
  • AC processes
  • SAXS


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