3D printed micro-jet impingement cooling for thermal management of ultra-high power GaN transistors

G. Zhang, J. W. Pomeroy, M. E. Navarro, H. Cao, M. Kuball, Y. Ding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Future GaN-based radio frequency (RF) high-electron-mobility-transistors (HEMTs) can enable increased areal power dissipation by, for example, integrating GaN device layers with high thermal conductivity diamond substrates. To maximize the benefit of the ultrahigh-power-density electronic devices, improved package-level cooling methods are needed to prevent the package and heatsink becoming a thermal bottleneck. We demonstrate that 3-D printed polymeric microjet liquid impingement cooling can reduce the thermal resistance at the package level by 60% with respect to GaN RF HEMTs mounted on conventional packaging.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9402857
Pages (from-to)748-754
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number5
Early online date13 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received November 9, 2020; revised March 16, 2021; accepted April 9, 2021. Date of publication April 13, 2021; date of current version May 17, 2021. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research (EPSRC) Council, U.K. (Integrated GaN-Diamond Microwave Electronics: From Materials, Transistors to MMICs), under Grant EP/P00945X/1. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor M. Iyengar upon evaluation of reviewers’ comments. (Corresponding author: Y. Ding.) G. Zhang, M. E. Navarro, H. Cao, and Y. Ding are with the Birmingham Centre for Energy Storage, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K. (e-mail: y.ding@bham.ac.uk).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2011-2012 IEEE.


  • 3D print
  • Cooling
  • Diamond
  • Gallium nitride
  • GaN
  • Heat transfer
  • Heating systems
  • micro-jet impingent cooling
  • Three-dimensional displays
  • transistor
  • Transistors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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