2021 roadmap for sodium-ion batteries

Nuria Tapia-Ruiz*, A. Robert Armstrong, Hande Alptekin, Marco A. Amores, Heather Au, Jerry Barker, Rebecca Boston, William R. Brant, Jake M. Brittain, Yue Chen, Manish Chhowalla, Yong Seok Choi, Sara I.R. Costa, Maria Crespo Ribadeneyra, Serena A. Cussen, Edmund J. Cussen, William I.F. David, Aamod V. Desai, Stewart A.M. Dickson, Emmanuel I. EwekaJuan D. Forero-Saboya, Clare P. Grey, John M. Griffin, Peter Gross, Xiao Hua, John T.S. Irvine, Patrik Johansson, Martin O. Jones, Martin Karlsmo, Emma Kendrick, Eunjeong Kim, Oleg V. Kolosov, Zhuangnan Li, Stijn F.L. Mertens, Ronnie Mogensen, Laure Monconduit, Russell E. Morris, Andrew J. Naylor, Shahin Nikman, Christopher A. O'Keefe, Darren M.C. Ould, R. G. Palgrave, Philippe Poizot, Alexandre Ponrouch, Stéven Renault, Emily M. Reynolds, Ashish Rudola, Ruth Sayers, David O. Scanlon, S. Sen, Valerie R. Seymour, Begoña Silván, Moulay Tahar Sougrati, Lorenzo Stievano, Grant S. Stone, Chris I. Thomas, Maria Magdalena Titirici, Jincheng Tong, Thomas J. Wood, Dominic S. Wright, Reza Younesi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Increasing concerns regarding the sustainability of lithium sources, due to their limited availability and consequent expected price increase, have raised awareness of the importance of developing alternative energy-storage candidates that can sustain the ever-growing energy demand. Furthermore, limitations on the availability of the transition metals used in the manufacturing of cathode materials, together with questionable mining practices, are driving development towards more sustainable elements. Given the uniformly high abundance and cost-effectiveness of sodium, as well as its very suitable redox potential (close to that of lithium), sodium-ion battery technology offers tremendous potential to be a counterpart to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in different application scenarios, such as stationary energy storage and low-cost vehicles. This potential is reflected by the major investments that are being made by industry in a wide variety of markets and in diverse material combinations. Despite the associated advantages of being a drop-in replacement for LIBs, there are remarkable differences in the physicochemical properties between sodium and lithium that give rise to different behaviours, for example, different coordination preferences in compounds, desolvation energies, or solubility of the solid-electrolyte interphase inorganic salt components. This demands a more detailed study of the underlying physical and chemical processes occurring in sodium-ion batteries and allows great scope for groundbreaking advances in the field, from lab-scale to scale-up. This roadmap provides an extensive review by experts in academia and industry of the current state of the art in 2021 and the different research directions and strategies currently underway to improve the performance of sodium-ion batteries. The aim is to provide an opinion with respect to the current challenges and opportunities, from the fundamental properties to the practical applications of this technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number031503
JournalJPhys Energy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the Faraday Institution NEXGENNA project (FIRG018) and Lancaster University for financial support.

Funding Information:
We would like to thank the EPSRC ISCF EP/R021554/2 for financial support to enable new discoveries in hard carbons for NIBs.

Funding Information:
The funding received from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 646433 (NAIADES), the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Energy Agency (#37671-1), and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS), are all gratefully acknowledged. The many fruitful discussions within ALISTORE-ERI, and especially with M Rosa Palacín, have been most valuable. P J is also grateful for the continuous support from several of the Chalmers Areas of Advance: Materials Science and Energy.

Funding Information:
Innovate UK for funding (IUK Project 104179).

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge RS2E and Alistore-ERI for funding their research into Na-ion batteries.

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the ISCF Faraday Challenge projects NEXGENNA (Grant No. FIRG018) and SOLBAT (Grant No. FIRG007), the EPSRC (EP/N001982/2), and the University of Sheffield for support.

Funding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the the Faraday Institution (Grant No. FIRG018), the EU Graphene Flagship Core 3 project, the EPSRC project EP/V00767X/1, and the scientific and methodology insight provided by Marta Mucientes and Nuria Tapia-Ruiz. We are also grateful to our industrial partners Bruker, Leica Microsystems, and LMA Ltd. for their scientific and financial support.

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from ALISTORE-ERI, the Faraday Institution (FIRG018), and the Austrian Research Fund (FWF, Project I3256-N36).

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the ISCF Faraday Challenge project NEXGENNA (Grant No. FIRG018), the EPSRC (EP/N001982/2), and the University of Sheffield for support.

Funding Information:
Y C and D O S are indebted to the Faraday Institution NEXGENNA project (FIRG018) for financial support. The writing of this roadmap section was supported by University College London (UCL).

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Å Forsk Foundation via Grant No. 19-638, by the Swedish Energy Agency via Project Number 48198-1 and by S T and U P for Energy.

Funding Information:
This research is funded by the Faraday Institution (Grant No. FIRG018). N T R would like to thank Lancaster University for their financial support. R B acknowledges the support of the Lloyd’s Register Foundation and the Royal Academy of Engineering under the Research Fellowships scheme.

Funding Information:
Funding from the European Union’s innovation program H2020 is acknowledged: H2020-MSCA-COFUND-2016 (DOC-FAM, Grant Agreement No. 754397). A Ponrouch is grateful to the Spanish Ministry for Economy, Industry and Competitiveness Severo Ochoa Programme for Centres of Excellence in R&D (SEV-2015-0496).


  • Anodes
  • Batteries
  • Cathodes
  • Electrolytes
  • Energy materials
  • Sodium ion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Energy
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


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