125 GHz frequency doubler using a waveguide cavity produced by stereolithography

Talal Skaik, Colin Viegas, Jeff Powell, Byron Alderman, Peter Huggard, Hui Wang, Carl Leonard, Yi Wang

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This letter reports on the first Schottky diode frequency doubler with a split-block waveguide structure fabricated by a high-precision stereolithography (SLA) printing process. The printed polymer waveguide parts were plated with copper and a thin protective layer of gold. The surface roughness of the printed waveguide parts has been characterized and the critical dimensions measured, revealing good printing quality as well as a dimensional accuracy that meets the tight tolerance requirements for sub-terahertz active devices. The 62.5 GHz to 125 GHz frequency doubler circuit comprises a 20 m thick GaAs Schottky diode monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) in the waveguide. The measured doubler provides a maximum output power of 33 mW at 126 GHz for input power of 100 mW. The peak conversion efficiency was about 32% at input powers from 80 to 110 mW. This doubler performance is compared with and found to be nearly identical to the same MMIC housed in a CNC-machined metal package. This work demonstrates the capability of high-precision SLA techniques for producing sub-terahertz waveguide components.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology
Early online date1 Dec 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • 3D printing
  • Electromagnetic waveguides
  • frequency doubler
  • Microwave filters
  • millimeterwave
  • MMIC
  • Optical waveguides
  • Power generation
  • Rough surfaces
  • Schottky diode
  • Schottky diodes
  • Stereolithography
  • Surface roughness
  • waveguide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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