Emma Breeze


Accepting PhD Students

PhD projects

International Humanitarian Law (the law of armed conflict), International Criminal Law, Transnational Criminal Law (to include cross-border crimes, such as trafficking and piracy)
International law and global legal studies (to include conflicts, transitional justice, international criminal law)


Research activity per year

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Personal profile


Dr Breeze is a lecturer in international criminal law at the University of Birmingham. Prior to this lectureship she was a lecturer in law at Coventry University. She completed her PhD at the University of Birmingham under the supervision of Professor Robert Cryer and Dr Alexander Orakhelashvili in June 2020. She has previously held an ESRC Impact Acceleration Post-Doctoral Fellowship to develop impact from her PhD. This resulted in a policy briefing concerning the three-fold increase in the use of drones (unmanned aerial vehicles) by law enforcement in England and Wales. She has worked with several interdisciplinary research groups, including the Institute for Global Innovation and the Centre for Crime Justice and Policing, and engaged with both academics and practitioners. Her work has featured in the Journal of Conflict and Security Law.

Research interests

Research into contemporary issues in international humanitarian law, particularly focussing on information and intelligence during conflict. Recent research developed an intelligence standard in targeting given the development of modern surveillance technologies. The role and scope of the precautionary principle of international humanitarian law continues to be at the heart of my current research, looking at both defenders’ obligations and the challenges presented by misinformation, deception and infiltration by hostile parties within technological decision-making systems during conflict.

Expertise related to UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This person’s work contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions


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